Status[ edit ] Certain nations and regions of the UK have frameworks for the promotion of their autochthonous languages. This was further enforced through the passing of the Welsh Language Wales Measure In Northern IrelandIrish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English mainly in publicly commissioned translations. Cornish in Cornwall Irish and Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland Scots and Scottish Gaelic in Scotland Welsh in Wales Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages which is not legally enforceable, but which requires states to adopt appropriate legal provision for the use of regional and minority languages the UK government has committed itself to the recognition of certain regional languages and the promotion of certain linguistic traditions.
See the software for automated testing of spoken English produced by Versant. Reading At a basic level it is simple to assess reading comprehension in much the same way as it is possible to assess listening comprehension, e. If well designed, this form of assessment works effectively and instant feedback can be offered to the student, which has a beneficial effect on learning.
The main ways of assessing reading skills can be summarised as follows: Multiple-choice, drag-and-drop, and fill-in-the-blank tests with single-words or very short sentences, but these types of tests cannot easily assess more open-ended aspects such as the ability to infer; and in multiple-choices tests students can get the answers right by guesswork.
Completely open-ended answers cannot be assessed. Single-word answers or answers consisting of very short sentences can be assessed to a limited extent.
More extended reading tasks are harder to set on computer. On-screen reading of longer texts is in any case inadvisable. Web guru Jakob Nielsen writes: Even users who don't know this human factors research usually say that they feel unpleasant when reading online text.
As a result, people don't want to read a lot of text from computer screens: We also know that users don't like to scroll: Instead, users scan text and pick out keywords, sentences, and paragraphs of interest while skipping over those parts of the text they care less about.
Writing for the WebAlertbox, 15 March More recent research by Nielsen, in which the iPad and Kindle were examined, showed that The iPad measured at 6. However, the difference between the two devices was not statistically significant because of the data's fairly high variability.
Thus, the only fair conclusion is that we can't say for sure which device offers the fastest reading speed. In any case, the difference would be so small that it wouldn't be a reason to buy one over the other.
But we can say that tablets still haven't beaten the printed book: See Nielsen's other articles on Writing for the Web. Extended texts are more likely to be print-based unless they are in hypertext format, i.
In the case of hypertext, the computer may be a suitable medium for assessing information-gathering techniques.
The skills needed to track down documents, follow links within and between them and find specific extracts are of increasing importance in academic life, in commercial settings and in leisure time. These skills are, to an extent, generic rather than specific to any given language although learners do need to know key terms involved in searching for information.
Many teachers are aware of the need to ensure that learners are equipped with the appropriate language skills for Web browsing, e.
Writing Limited assessment of writing skills is possible. It is fairly straightforward to program computers to assess the accuracy of single words and short sentences typed at the keyboard, and work on parsing students' typed responses, diagnosing errors and providing appropriate feedback is in progress - see Section 8 in Module 3.
There are also features in modern computer software that can be used within the assessment process, such as spellcheckers to enable self-assessment of spelling, and also grammar and style checkers, which - although still imperfect - do pick up many errors that students can use to self-correct, such as errors of gender or number: As for assessing continuous pieces of text, some progress has been made in developing programs that can roughly grade short essays.
Screenshot, Microsoft Word Spellchecker The main use of computers in the assessment of writing is, currently, the use of on-screen marking as described in Section 3.
You can read more about grammar and style checkers in: Section 7, Module 3. Computer-based exercises and tests often take the same kind of format.
The essential difference between an exercise and a test is the purpose to which it is put. An exercise usually offers instant feedback to the learner and an opportunity to correct any errors that are made, whereas a test may offer little feedback to the learner apart from a raw score at the end of the test, or no feedback at all, e.
Exercises are usually designed to offer the learner practice in specific areas and to motivate and encourage, whereas tests are usually designed to assess the learner's progress in specific areas, i. But sometimes these distinctions become blurred.
The main kinds of tests include: These are designed mainly to sort students into teaching groups so that they are approximately at the same level when they join the group.
Placement tests may take the form of adaptive tests see below. These are designed to enable the learner or teacher to identify specific strengths and weaknesses so that remedial action can be take.Language Forums. The WordReference language forum is the largest repository of knowledge and advice about the English language, as well as a number of other languages.
If you have a question about language usage, first search the hundreds of thousands of previous questions. If you still are unsure, then you can ask the question .
A full scheme of work created for the reading section of the new AQA English Language Paper 2: Writers' Viewpoints and Perspectives. The unit works through the different skills needed for the paper and presents students with a wide range of non-fiction texts. A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to, i.e., an English speaker living in Spain can say that Spanish is a foreign language to him or her.
These two characterisations do not exhaust the possible definitions, however, and the label is occasionally applied in ways that are variously. This colourful poster is the perfect writing aid for when your little ones are learning to write persuasively.
Stick around your classroom and use as a discussion prompt or as an independent writing aid. Along with GCSE Maths, this is the qualification that employers and university admissions tutors are looking out for. All aspects of life require good communication skills and the ability to understand and be understood.
OCR ii A Level in English Language and Literature (EMC) Introducing A Level English Language and Literature (EMC) (from September ) OCR’s A Level in English Language and Literature (EMC).